Article 1, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution requires the federal government to conduct an “actual enumeration” of all people residing in the nation every ten years. The logistical operation that is the U.S. Census is a formidable endeavor. The Census Bureau staffs up every ten years, hoping to leave no stone unturned in finding and counting everyone where they live as of April 1. Even with all that effort, however, the Census has historically undercounted certain populations. People without a fixed abode, people who move often, children, people who don’t speak or read English and people who distrust and fear the federal government have always been notoriously difficult to count. Because census numbers determine not only congressional representation, but also the allocation of billions of dollars in federal grants, aids and other expenditures, local communities have an incentive to make sure none of their residents are left out. Sheila Stubbs represents Assembly District 77 in the Wisconsin Legislature, and she is the Chair of Madison’s Census Complete Count Committee.